Ever wondered how a solar panel is constructed and how it works?

Ever wondered how a solar panel is constructed and how it works?


What is a Solar Panel?

A solar panel, or module, is a series of interconnected silicon cells joined together to form a circuit. In greater numbers, the amount of power produced by these interconnected cells can be increased and used as an electricity production system.

Solar panels come in different sizes for different purposes. The current standard offering in the market is a 60-cell panel, with larger 72-cell panels being used for larger-scale installations. Smaller panels are also available and used in the off-grid market, where space is at a premium or for layouts where more flexibility is required.

Function and Structure

Solar panels absorb the sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity or heat. That is, a Solar Panel is a device that converts light energy from the Sun to electrical energy.

Solar Panels consist of Photovoltaic Cells (a.k.a. PV cells or solar cells) that absorbs energy from sun rays and convert it to DC current which can then be further processed by a power inverter to deliver power to appliances in a home or business.

Layers of The Solar Panel

Layers of the Solar Panel


These frames which are metallic in nature, are characteristically used to stabilize the solar panel and protect the glass top layer.


The top layer of a solar panel is a layer of low-iron glass. It provides mechanical strength, protects the front surface of the solar panel from physical damage and allows light to transmit into the solar cells.


Encapsulants deliver long-standing protection and durability for the most sensitive parts of solar panels. They bolster and protect the fragile solar cells and panel circuitry from impact and stimulate the transmission of sunlight into the solar cells. They also provide performance, design and productivity advantages for crystalline silicon and thin-film solar technologies.

Solar Cells

Crystalline-silicon wafers convert sunlight to electrical current, which is then carried to the outside circuitry by metallization pastes.


Back-sheets are vital to long-term resilience. They protect solar panels from Ultra-Violet rays, temperature, and moisture. They also provide electrical insulation for improved performance and safety, even in extreme outdoor conditions.

Junction Box

Protects the electrical wires which carry the current produced from the solar panel to an inverter, where the direct current (DC) is converted to alternating current (AC) electricity.


2 Replies to “Ever wondered how a solar panel is constructed and how it works?”

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  2. Very Insightful and informative!

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